In-Between the Virtual Past and Actual Present

Bergson indicated that in order for memories to be formed, every actual present must be doubled by coexisting virtual past moment. This concept could also be employed for the phenomenon of persistence of vision in creating the illusions through deliberately manipulated “inbetween-ness” in moving image production. In order to define the inbetween-ness, the element of perceptual fluxionality would have ontologically consisted as one of most significant criteria.

In terms of animation production, the so-called inbetweener usually implies the labour-intense job where not much of personal creative input would be encouraged within the production team. Conventionally in the analogue era, often the dogma for the inbetweeners to execute their job is to follow what would have developed by Disney Studio and used in many productions, the “animation principles”. Paradoxically, however, in contemporary digital, non-linear production environment, the emphasis would have not only refer to the conventions, but also fallen in to the digital in-between processes – where software provides perceptual effects that eventually defines it’s own presentation and ontology.

Therefore in this paper and studio practice project, I will exam the analogue system development and latest digital production technique in creating the inbetween-vision, in order to rethink the ontology of reality of moving picture as well as to reveal the evolvement and impact of visual perception in the digital era.


Dr. Chi-Sui Wang currently lectures the subject of Multimedia in the School of Communications at Dublin City University. She obtained her Ph.D in Fine Art from Newcastle University in U.K. in 2004. Her practice-led research interest focuses on the visual perception representing in the various visual media such as painting and animation. Her work has been disseminated through exhibitions, publications and through the establishment of networks internationally.